13 July Technologies for Server-Based Indoor Positioning Compared: Wi-Fi vs. BLE vs. UWB vs. RFID 3 MIN READ July 13, 2017 By Gina Wurms general posts |WiFi|, |UWB|, |RFID|, |positioning technology|, |indoor tracking|, |Bluetooth| 0 There is a wide variety of technologies on which server-based indoor positioning systems can be based. In this blog post, we introduce you to the most common ones – Wi-Fi, BLE, UWB and RFID – and point out benefits and obstacles respectively. Real-time locating systems (RTLS) are used to automatically identify and track the location of objects or people in real time, usually within a building. Server-based locating systems work with a specific hardware functioning as fixed reference points (infsoft Locator Nodes) that detect wireless signals from tags or devices (e.g. Wi-Fi, UWB or RFID tag, Bluetooth beacon) and transmit them to a server. There, the position is calculated and the data are transferred to an output medium. Applications of RTLS include pallet localization in warehouses, tracking of medical equipment in a clinic, or identification of people for safety and security reasons, just to name a few. There is a wide variety of technologies on which server-based indoor positioning systems can be based. Let’s have a look at the most common ones – Wi-Fi, BLE, UWB and RFID – and point out benefits and obstacles respectively. Wi-Fi Wi-Fi-based real-time positioning systems locate and monitor active Wi-Fi devices, such as smartphones, tablets and Wi-Fi tags. The accuracy of Wi-Fi used for server-based indoor localization varies from eight to 15 meters – depending on the preconditions. Benefits: ability to track all Wi-Fi-enabled devices, ability to monitor visitor behavior, large range (up to 150m) Obstacles: difficult to achieve the level of precision afforded by BLE or RFID , high latencies and use of randomized MAC address when device is not connected to Wi-Fi network Use recommendations: tracking solutions where analysis of motion profiles is desired (e.g. for event locations) Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons Beacons are small wireless devices that broadcast signals using Bluetooth Low Energy, also known as Bluetooth Smart. They are relatively cheap, can run on button cells up to more than five years and have a maximum range of 75 meters. Accuracy is typically less than eight meters with Bluetooth 4.0. The new 5.1 version of the Bluetooth specification enables use cases for direction finding and provides accuracies of less than one meter (with given line-of-sight). Beacons come in all kinds of different formats, are scalable and highly portable. Benefits: flexibility, cost efficiency Obstacles: attenuations in the signal dispersion within buildings, instability with layout changes and radio interferences Use recommendations: indoor tracking solutions without near perfect precision needs Ultra-wideband (UWB) Ultra-wideband is a short-range radio technology. The accuracy is less than 30 cm, which is considerably better than when working with beacons or Wi-Fi. Also, height differences can be measured accurately. Benefits: high accuracy, low latency times with position updates up to 100 times/second, almost no interferences Obstacles: higher cost and shorter battery lifetime than BLE beacons Use recommendations: tracking solutions in industrial environments with high precision needs and modest number of assets RFID RFID is a form of wireless communication that uses radio waves to identify objects. Passive RFID technology works only in the proximity of specialized RFID readers (infsoft Locator Node, functioning as a power source for RFID tags), providing a 'point-in-time' location. Benefits: very high accuracy, very immune to interferences, no battery needed Obstacles: short range (less than one meter), installation requires significant planning, infrastructure can be expensive Use recommendations: tracking solutions with large number of tags (e.g. in logistics, distribution and inventory management) Conclusion Unfortunately, no single solution is a silver bullet for creating a RTLS that fits all possible needs. Usually, finding the most suitable technology requires evaluating what you are trying to achieve, the conditions on site, and your budget. Often, the most efficient solution is a combination of techniques. Check out this use case which illustrates the use of UWB, complemented with RFID. You can find a comparison of technologies for client-based indoor positioning here. Get the white paper for free Great introduction to the topic of indoor positioning Download Related Articles Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation Using Wi-Fi Positioning using GPS does not work reliably inside buildings as there is no visual contact with the GPS satellites. A good alternative is indoor positioning using Wi-Fi. An additional advantage compared to GPS is the possibility to determine the current floor level. Read More Techniques for Client-Based Indoor Positioning – GPS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and VLC Compared Techniques for client-based indoor positioning – GPS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and VLC compared - check out our infographic. Read More Indoor Navigation & Indoor Positioning Using Bluetooth Indoor navigation & indoor positioning using Bluetooth – learn more about the pros & cons. Read More Client-Based and Server-Based Indoor Positioning Client-based and server-based indoor positioning - what are the differences and what do you need for your project? Read More "Indoor GPS" - Techniques for Indoor Positioning Without Using GPS Techniques for indoor positioning without using GPS - learn more about Indoor GPS in our blog. Read More Client-Based Indoor Positioning Technologies Compared – 3 Alternatives to GPS Get the slides: Client based indoor positioning technologies compared – 3 alternatives to GPS. Read More Comments are closed.